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08-20-2019     3 رجب 1440

Article 370 Grant Special Status to Jammu and Kashmir

August 03, 2019 | Mehnaz Rather

Article 370 has been describe as a tunnel through which the constitution is applied to Jammu and Kashmir . Article 370 deals with the constitutional relationship of Jammu and Kashmir with Union Government . Under Part 21 of the constitution of India, which deal “Temporary, Transitional and special provision,”the state of Jammu and Kashmir has been according special status under Article 370. Article 370 says other provision of the constitution can apply to Jammu and Kashmir ”subject to such exceptions and modification as the President may be order specify ,”with the concurrence of state government and endorsement of Jammu and Kashmir constituent assembly.

Legal status of Jammu and Kashmir before 1947

Before incorporation of Article 370 in Indian constitution, the state, from legal point of view, was the native state of India whose connection with the Crown was determined by the same relationship as with those of other states . Accordingly to this relationship all the native States including Jammu and Kashmir “were the vassal states of the British crown in the form of dependent territory connected with the British empire through the relationship of paramount” the Indian native states were not recognized as states under international law and none of them ,therefore ever had international status .The native state during pre-independence era were nothing but vassal states ,the rulers of the states were loyal and subordinate to their master the British imperialist but within their own territorial jurisdiction they were autocrats and despot like monarchs who ruthlessly ruled over their innocent subjects. The Indian independence Act 1947 provided that the rural of the native state free to accede to any of the new domain, India and Pakistan.

Instrument of Accession

Raja Hari Singh had initially decided to remain independent. But an invasion from tribesmen and Army from Pakistan , he sought the help of India , which in turn the instrument of Kashmir to India . Hari Singh signed the Instrument of Accession on oct.26 1947 and Governor General Lord Mount Batten accepted it on oct.27 1947 with a remark , ‘’ It is my government wish that the soon law and order have been restored in Jammu and Kashmir and her soil cleared of the invaders the question of the state’s accession should be settled by a reference to the people’.The schedule appended to the instrument of accession gave parliament the power to legislate in respect of Jammu and Kashmir only on defence, External affairs and communications. Raja Hari Singh , Rural of Jammu and Kashmir explicitly mentioned that the terms of ‘’ My instrument of accession cannot be varied by any amendment of the Act or of Indian independence Act unless such amendment Is accepted by me by an instrument supplementary to this instrument clause 7 of instrument of accession said ‘’nothing in this instrument shall be deemed to commit me in any way to acceptance of any future constitution of India are to fetter my discretion to enter into arrangements with government of India under any such future constitution.’’

How Article 370 have Acquired Permanent Shape Under Indian Constitution


Article 370 could be interpreted as temporary in the sense that the Jammu and Kashmir constituent assembly had a right to modify / delete/ retain it; it decided to retain it. Another interpretation was that accession was temporary until a Plebiscite. The union government in written reply in parliament last year, Said there is no provision to remove Article from the Indian Constitution. The Supreme Court in April 2018 said that despite the head note using the word ‘’Temporary. Article 370 is not temporary. In Sampat Prakash [1969] the Supreme refuses to acceptArticle 370 as temporary . A five Judge bench said ‘’Article 370 has never ceased to be operative ‘’. Thus it has acquired permanent shape under the constitution of India . Can article 370 be deleted from Indian Constitution?
Under Article 370 clause (3) permits deletion by presidential order such an order however is to be proceeded by the concurrence of Jammu and Kashmir’s constituent assembly since such an assembly was dissolved on January 26 1957 and now it is deleted.


Writer is a Law student at Kashmir University
Email. Mehnazrather42@gmail.com

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Article 370 Grant Special Status to Jammu and Kashmir

August 03, 2019 | Mehnaz Rather

Article 370 has been describe as a tunnel through which the constitution is applied to Jammu and Kashmir . Article 370 deals with the constitutional relationship of Jammu and Kashmir with Union Government . Under Part 21 of the constitution of India, which deal “Temporary, Transitional and special provision,”the state of Jammu and Kashmir has been according special status under Article 370. Article 370 says other provision of the constitution can apply to Jammu and Kashmir ”subject to such exceptions and modification as the President may be order specify ,”with the concurrence of state government and endorsement of Jammu and Kashmir constituent assembly.

Legal status of Jammu and Kashmir before 1947

Before incorporation of Article 370 in Indian constitution, the state, from legal point of view, was the native state of India whose connection with the Crown was determined by the same relationship as with those of other states . Accordingly to this relationship all the native States including Jammu and Kashmir “were the vassal states of the British crown in the form of dependent territory connected with the British empire through the relationship of paramount” the Indian native states were not recognized as states under international law and none of them ,therefore ever had international status .The native state during pre-independence era were nothing but vassal states ,the rulers of the states were loyal and subordinate to their master the British imperialist but within their own territorial jurisdiction they were autocrats and despot like monarchs who ruthlessly ruled over their innocent subjects. The Indian independence Act 1947 provided that the rural of the native state free to accede to any of the new domain, India and Pakistan.

Instrument of Accession

Raja Hari Singh had initially decided to remain independent. But an invasion from tribesmen and Army from Pakistan , he sought the help of India , which in turn the instrument of Kashmir to India . Hari Singh signed the Instrument of Accession on oct.26 1947 and Governor General Lord Mount Batten accepted it on oct.27 1947 with a remark , ‘’ It is my government wish that the soon law and order have been restored in Jammu and Kashmir and her soil cleared of the invaders the question of the state’s accession should be settled by a reference to the people’.The schedule appended to the instrument of accession gave parliament the power to legislate in respect of Jammu and Kashmir only on defence, External affairs and communications. Raja Hari Singh , Rural of Jammu and Kashmir explicitly mentioned that the terms of ‘’ My instrument of accession cannot be varied by any amendment of the Act or of Indian independence Act unless such amendment Is accepted by me by an instrument supplementary to this instrument clause 7 of instrument of accession said ‘’nothing in this instrument shall be deemed to commit me in any way to acceptance of any future constitution of India are to fetter my discretion to enter into arrangements with government of India under any such future constitution.’’

How Article 370 have Acquired Permanent Shape Under Indian Constitution


Article 370 could be interpreted as temporary in the sense that the Jammu and Kashmir constituent assembly had a right to modify / delete/ retain it; it decided to retain it. Another interpretation was that accession was temporary until a Plebiscite. The union government in written reply in parliament last year, Said there is no provision to remove Article from the Indian Constitution. The Supreme Court in April 2018 said that despite the head note using the word ‘’Temporary. Article 370 is not temporary. In Sampat Prakash [1969] the Supreme refuses to acceptArticle 370 as temporary . A five Judge bench said ‘’Article 370 has never ceased to be operative ‘’. Thus it has acquired permanent shape under the constitution of India . Can article 370 be deleted from Indian Constitution?
Under Article 370 clause (3) permits deletion by presidential order such an order however is to be proceeded by the concurrence of Jammu and Kashmir’s constituent assembly since such an assembly was dissolved on January 26 1957 and now it is deleted.


Writer is a Law student at Kashmir University
Email. Mehnazrather42@gmail.com


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Owner, Printer, Publisher, Editor: Farooq Ahmad Wani
Legal Advisor: M.J. Hubi
Printed at: Abid Enterprizes, Zainkote Srinagar
Published from: Gulshanabad Chraresharief Budgam
RNI No.: JKENG/2010/33802
Office No’s: 0194-2451076, 9622924716 , 9419400056
Postal Regd No: SK/135/2010-2019
Administrative Office: Abi Guzer Srinagar

© Copyright 2018 brighterkashmir.com All Rights Reserved.