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12-07-2022     3 رجب 1440

Contribution of Muslim Scientists in Chemistry

Jabir did many contributions to the experimental side of chemistry and documented many of those works of the advances he made in areas

October 08, 2021 | Umar Bashir

Like the other fields chemistry is also den tiled with the contributions of Muslim experts , in other way we can say Muslim Scientists are the real fathers of chemistry with surprising , phenomenal concepts even in the eras of zero systematized developments.

A comprehensive thicker , famous expert , author of enormous number and variety of works , oftenly called Jabirian corpus in Arab , popularly known as father of chemistry ; Jabir Ibn Hayyan .
During this period, where scientific endeavor was only just beginning and there were few distinctions between the various sciences, great minds such as Ibn Hayyan, known in the west as Geber, could prosper. However, amongst his range of other achievements, he is best known as the father of Islamic Alchemy now chemistry, writing many great works that were passed over by later European scholars and only rediscovered much later in the history of chemistry. His major work was on the metals , there nature and there chemistry , which give his work universality & trying to establish exactly what gave them their different properties.
Jabir worked on four elements of heat, cold, dryness and wetness and also believed that they were combined to make every other substance. This became the basis of his theory of metals and he proposed that all metals were made of sulphar and mercury, the ‘intermediate’ stages between the elements and metals. Gold was the perfect combination of sulphur and mercury, but other metals were contaminated by impurities, with copper, silver’ lead and the other known metals resulting from this. In Jabir’s Islamic alchemy, the task was to restore the impurity by removing the impurities from the metal and ending up with gold.
However, Jabir did many contributions to the experimental side of chemistry and documented many of those works of the advances he made in areas such as refining metals, fabricating and using dyes and inks, and contributions to glassmaking. He found out a way to use iron pyrites to make gold ink for manuscripts, which was much cheaper than actual gold for the intricate illuminated manuscripts of the time.
He also documented how to establish and purify acids; nitric, hydrochloric and sulphuric, as well as the mixing or amalgam of sulfuric and nitric acids, known as Aqua Regia, that can even dissolve gold. Also worked on the methods of sublimation, evaporation, filtration, calcinations and crystallization. It is believed that Jabir laid down the framework for conducting, recording and repeating chemistry experiments, a sign of the increasing use of a proto-scientific method amongst Islamic scholars. These are some notable and famous works , however he has more hand in many other contribution.
One more comprehensive and intellect , who followed the path of Jabir is ; Al Razi .
incorporating many of the same ideas and using much the same terminology, even using the same titles for his books as the earlier scholar. Al Rhazes wrote a number of treatises that became known to western science, the most important of which became known as Liber Secretorum Bubacaris, in the western world, and was regarded as a foundation work for centuries.
Trying to fit the substances into groups and classifications according to their properties. In his book, Sirr al-asrar book, he listed the ingredients as follows.
Earthly Substances:
The Spirits: Mercury, sulphur, arsenic sulphate, ammonia
The Bodies: Gold, silver, copper, iron, lead, tin
The Stones: Iron pyrites, iron oxide, zinc oxide, malachite, turquoise, arsenic oxide, lead sulphate, gypsum, glass
The Vitriols: Black, alum, green, red, yellow, white
Borax
The Salts
Vegetable Substances
Whilst Jabir and Al-Razi were the two great names in the history of Islamic alchemy and two great contributors to the history of chemistry, other Islamic scholars also added to the annals.

 


Email:----umarwagay214.uu@gmail.com

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Contribution of Muslim Scientists in Chemistry

Jabir did many contributions to the experimental side of chemistry and documented many of those works of the advances he made in areas

October 08, 2021 | Umar Bashir

Like the other fields chemistry is also den tiled with the contributions of Muslim experts , in other way we can say Muslim Scientists are the real fathers of chemistry with surprising , phenomenal concepts even in the eras of zero systematized developments.

A comprehensive thicker , famous expert , author of enormous number and variety of works , oftenly called Jabirian corpus in Arab , popularly known as father of chemistry ; Jabir Ibn Hayyan .
During this period, where scientific endeavor was only just beginning and there were few distinctions between the various sciences, great minds such as Ibn Hayyan, known in the west as Geber, could prosper. However, amongst his range of other achievements, he is best known as the father of Islamic Alchemy now chemistry, writing many great works that were passed over by later European scholars and only rediscovered much later in the history of chemistry. His major work was on the metals , there nature and there chemistry , which give his work universality & trying to establish exactly what gave them their different properties.
Jabir worked on four elements of heat, cold, dryness and wetness and also believed that they were combined to make every other substance. This became the basis of his theory of metals and he proposed that all metals were made of sulphar and mercury, the ‘intermediate’ stages between the elements and metals. Gold was the perfect combination of sulphur and mercury, but other metals were contaminated by impurities, with copper, silver’ lead and the other known metals resulting from this. In Jabir’s Islamic alchemy, the task was to restore the impurity by removing the impurities from the metal and ending up with gold.
However, Jabir did many contributions to the experimental side of chemistry and documented many of those works of the advances he made in areas such as refining metals, fabricating and using dyes and inks, and contributions to glassmaking. He found out a way to use iron pyrites to make gold ink for manuscripts, which was much cheaper than actual gold for the intricate illuminated manuscripts of the time.
He also documented how to establish and purify acids; nitric, hydrochloric and sulphuric, as well as the mixing or amalgam of sulfuric and nitric acids, known as Aqua Regia, that can even dissolve gold. Also worked on the methods of sublimation, evaporation, filtration, calcinations and crystallization. It is believed that Jabir laid down the framework for conducting, recording and repeating chemistry experiments, a sign of the increasing use of a proto-scientific method amongst Islamic scholars. These are some notable and famous works , however he has more hand in many other contribution.
One more comprehensive and intellect , who followed the path of Jabir is ; Al Razi .
incorporating many of the same ideas and using much the same terminology, even using the same titles for his books as the earlier scholar. Al Rhazes wrote a number of treatises that became known to western science, the most important of which became known as Liber Secretorum Bubacaris, in the western world, and was regarded as a foundation work for centuries.
Trying to fit the substances into groups and classifications according to their properties. In his book, Sirr al-asrar book, he listed the ingredients as follows.
Earthly Substances:
The Spirits: Mercury, sulphur, arsenic sulphate, ammonia
The Bodies: Gold, silver, copper, iron, lead, tin
The Stones: Iron pyrites, iron oxide, zinc oxide, malachite, turquoise, arsenic oxide, lead sulphate, gypsum, glass
The Vitriols: Black, alum, green, red, yellow, white
Borax
The Salts
Vegetable Substances
Whilst Jabir and Al-Razi were the two great names in the history of Islamic alchemy and two great contributors to the history of chemistry, other Islamic scholars also added to the annals.

 


Email:----umarwagay214.uu@gmail.com


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Owner, Printer, Publisher, Editor: Farooq Ahmad Wani
Legal Advisor: M.J. Hubi
Printed at: Abid Enterprizes, Zainkote Srinagar
Published from: Gulshanabad Chraresharief Budgam
RNI No.: JKENG/2010/33802
Office No’s: 0194-2451076, 9622924716 , 9419400056
Postal Regd No: SK/135/2010-2019
Administrative Office: Abi Guzer Srinagar

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