The Smoggy City                    

Hyder Bisati
November 14, 2017 OPINION 443 Views
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment or natural resources that causes environmental imbalance and adverse changes. It can take the form of chemical substances or energy like noise, heat, or light. The history of pollution is old as existence of life when man came to know the use of fire and first time burnt the wood for different purposes and emitted smoke from it which for the first time polluted the environment. It dates back to the different ages like Stone Age, metal age, semi mechanized age, industrial age, modern age and worst ever digitalized era. Accordingly pollution is of seven main types:
1:- Air pollution: the contamination of air present in our environment is known as air pollution. This type of pollution is caused due to partially combustion of gases which produce poisonous gases like carbon monoxide (MO), it is also caused due to burning of discarded rubber, plastic, fire crackers, and wood which releases carcinogenic gases and causes air pollution.
2:- Water pollution: as the name suggests itself ‘water’, is a type of pollution that involves the contamination of water bodies that supports life. It is caused due to dumping of industrial waste, insecticides, pesticides, ripening chemicals, detergents and oil spills into natural water bodies.
3:- Soil pollution: it is a type of pollution which is caused due to usage of artificial chemicals like pesticides, insecticides, weedicides, etc into soil to increase fertility of soil.
4:- Thermal pollution: increase in temperature in the ecosystem due to release of excessive heat energy into the environment by natural or artificial means, due to vehicles which have combustion engine releases high amount of heat energy. It causes in Global Warming.
5:- Radioactive pollution: it is the most dangerous type of pollution caused due to disintegration of metals releasing dangerous beta rays which causes cancer especially skin cancer. Its best example is atomic bomb left over Japan at the last of Second World War.
6:- Noise pollution: the sounds which are not pleasant are called as noises, so excess of noises in outdoors causes noise pollution caused due to honking of vehicles , trains, clubs, crowded places, etc.
7:- Light pollution: bright lights in functions, in big cities, by vehicles causes light pollution resulting in extreme discomfort to eyes, depression, headache and even migraine.
UNO’s recent reports said that about 7 million people are dying annually from air pollution only and 92% of world’s population is living in those places where pollution level exceeds recommended limits. “Fast action to tackle the air pollution can’t come soon enough” top UN WHO environmental officer Maria Neria said, she also added that “Solutions exists with sustainable transport, waste management, access to clean fuels as well as renewable energies and industrial emissions reduction”. According to WHO ( World Health Organization) reports that 94% of deaths are due to non-communicable diseases- notable cardio-vascular diseases, strokes, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and lung cancer. Air pollution also raises risks of acute respiration disorders.
We know that the environment and human well being are inextricably linked with each other. So it stands to reason that public should have right to be involved in environmental decision making.  There are various countries which have strong laws for environmental issues like penalty of life imprisonment not less than a year and fine in Lithuania, Latvia, Russia, USA, UK, South Africa, etc. there are also various countries where environmental law score is very less like in Belize, Jordan, St. Lucia, Nepal, Srilanka , etc.
Recent research conducted in USA surveyed that more than 20 million deaths occurs due to all type of pollutions and majority of them pertains to East and Central Asia. Another study surveyed that 40% of world’s deaths are because of one or another type of pollution. There are mainly 45 diseases categorized which are caused due to pollutions
Diseases  caused due to air pollution are:- asthma attacks, pulmonary cancer, pneumonia, bronchitis, emphysema, leukemia, autism, and etc, etc
Diseases caused due to water pollution are:- typhoid, giardiasis, hepatitis, vomiting, diarrhea, kidney damage, liver cancer, malaria , rashes, aches, weak sexual power, pink eyes, etc, etc.
Diseases caused due to soil pollution are: – cancer, brain and nerve damage, kidney and liver failure.
Diseases caused due to remaining pollutions are: – lack of efficiency, lack of concentration, fatigue, abortion, fluctuating blood pressure deafness and anxiety.
Air pollution in India is a serious debatable issue with the measure sources being burning of fuel woods & biomass, fuel adulteration, vehicle emissions and traffic congestions. In autumn and winter months, large scale crop residue burning in agricultural fields is major source of smoke and smog(smoky fog) for pollution in India. There is a single law made by legislation to control air pollution index in India  i,e The Air (prevention and protection) Act 1981 commonly known as Air Act 1981 which penalizes that the offender shall be punished with the imprisonment of six months to seven years and additional fine up to 5000 rupees per day. However India ranked 141 out of 180 countries in Environmental Performance Index. Out of 423 cities in India, Indore along with Bhopal and Vishakhapatnam are ranked cleanest cities and Delhi along with Noida, Gurgaon, Faridabad, Varanasi and Ghaziabad are hardest hit due to air pollution.
Now chalking out Delhi’s condition, the main cause of pollution is due to burning of crop residue by neighboring states of Punjab and Haryana, due to vehicles, road dust, industries, domestic sources and concrete batching in Delhi. The pollutants have more damaging effects on both human health and ecology. These pollutants are believed to have direct affect on respiratory and cardio-vascular system. According to Forbes Delhi is ranked second but according to WHO it poses first rank as the most polluted metropolis or city all over the globe. Despite of air pollution, Delhi is facing problem of water pollution and noise pollution in a very higher proportions. The surprising thing is that the people of Delhi are still unconscious about current happening and doesn’t demand the right to breathe which is right to life also. Delhi’s silent capitulation to fate is a painful indictment of its inability to stand up for its own rights. In today’s era of modern technology, Delhi is facing a horror show. The government is fully responsible for present scenario prevailing in Delhi. A report by Meteorological Department of Delhi shows the rise in pollution only after Diwali. Now the government of Delhi woke up after 20 consolidated days of rising pollution in Delhi and is trying to control pollution in a short glimpse of time which is an impossible thing to do. A very surprising report by BBC Weather (British Broadcasting Corporation) that pollutants were such that it is equivalent to smoking 50 cigarettes a day.
                                                                                    Author is Student of Saiyyid Hamid Sr. Sec. School, Aligarh Muslim University.

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